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For instance, the British government introduced the notion of patriality to ensure white people of British ancestry from Africa could settle in the UK. Until , the former British dependency of Rhodesia held a well-publicised image as being one of two nations in sub-Saharan Africa where a white minority of European descent and culture held political, economic, and social control over a preponderantly black African majority. Initially, about three-fourths of resident whites were of British origin, with those from England and Wales predominating.

Also represented were working-class Englishmen responding to economic opportunities. During the Rhodesian Bush War , almost the entire white male population between eighteen and fifty-eight was affected by various military commitments, and individuals spent up to five or six months of the year on combat duty away from their normal occupations in the civil service, commerce, industry, or agriculture.

In November , state media cited the chief reasons for emigration as uncertainty about the future, economic decline due to embargo and war, and the heavy commitments of national service, which was described as "the overriding factor causing people to leave".


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Between and , whites immigrated, while , departed. This dynamic turnover rate led to depressions in the property market, a slump in the construction industry, and a decline in retail sales. In around 14, whites left the country, marking the first year since Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in that more whites had left the country than arrived, [49] with most leaving for South Africa.

The establishment of the new Republic of Zimbabwe in sounded the death knell for white political power and ushered in a new era of black majority rule. From a strictly economic point of view, the departure figures were not as significant as the loss of the skills of those leaving. Among those living in the United States, for example, If the percentage of immigrant children rose above this level, native Danes are far more likely to choose other schools. Immigrants who speak Danish at home also opt out.

Other immigrants, often more recent ones, stay with local schools. A government report stated that immigration in Dublin has caused "dramatic" white flight from elementary schools in a studied area Dublin The report stated that Dublin was risking creating immigrant-dominated banlieues , on the outskirts of a city, similar to such areas in France. The immigrants in the area included Eastern Europeans such as those from Poland , Asians, and Africans mainly from Nigeria.

In January , a news feature from Dagsrevyen on the public Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation said, "Oslo has become a racially divided city. In some city districts the racial segregation starts already in kindergarten.

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The first was a direct result of the war, with refugees from concentration camps and surrounding countries in Scandinavia and Northern Europe. The second, prior to , involved immigrant workers, mainly from Finland , Italy , Greece , and Yugoslavia. In the most recent phase, from the s onwards, refugees immigrated from the Middle East , Africa, and Latin America , joined later by their relatives. A study which mapped patterns of segregation and congregation of incoming population groups [68] found that, if a majority group is reluctant to accept a minority influx, they may leave the district, avoid the district, or use tactics to keep the minority out.

The minority group in turn react by either dispersing or congregating, avoiding certain districts in turn. It concluded that while many expressed values as ethnic diversity being an enriching factor, but when in practice it came to choosing schools or choosing district to move to, ensuring the children had an access to a school with robust Swedish majority as they didn't want their children to grow up in a school as a minority and wanted them to be in a good Swedish language learning environment.

For centuries, London was the destination for refugees and immigrants from continental Europe. Although all the immigrants were European, neighborhoods showed ethnic succession over time, as older residents in some cases, ethnic British moved out and new immigrants moved in, an early case of white flight though the majority of London's population was still ethnic British. In the census , the London boroughs of Newham and Brent were found to be the first areas to have non-white majorities. A report stated that white migration within the UK is mainly from areas of high ethnic minority population to those with predominantly white populations.

White British families have moved out of London as many immigrants have settled in the capital. The report's writers expressed concern about British social cohesion and stated that different ethnic groups were living "parallel lives"; they were concerned that lack of contact between the groups could result in fear more readily exploited by extremists.

Middle‐Class Parents and Urban Public Schools: Current Research and Future Directions

The London School of Economics in a study found similar results. Researcher Ludi Simpson says that the growth of ethnic minorities in Britain is due mostly to natural population growth births outnumber deaths rather than immigration. Both white and non-white Britons who can do so economically are equally likely to leave mixed-race inner-city areas. In his opinion, these trends indicate counter urbanisation rather than white flight. In Sydney , Australian-born minority white and non-white in Fairfield and Canterbury fell by three percentage points, six percentage points in Auburn , and three percentage points in Strathfield between and Only in Liverpool , one of the more fast growth areas of Sydney, did both the Australia-born and overseas-born male population increase over the period.

However, the rate of growth of the overseas-born was far greater than that of the Australia-born, thus the sharp increase in Liverpool's population share from The Australia-born movers from the south-western suburbs relocated in Penrith to northwest and Gosford and Wyong in the northeast. According to the New South Wales Secondary Principals Council and the University of Western Sydney , public schools in that state have experienced white flight to private and Catholic schools wherever there is a large presence of Aboriginal and Middle Eastern students.

White flight has been observed in low socioeconomic decile schools in New Zealand. Data from the Ministry of Education found that 60, New Zealand European students attended low-decile schools situated in the poorest areas in , and had fallen to half that number in The same data also found that high-decile schools which are in the wealthiest areas had a corresponding increase in New Zealand European students.

In one specific case, white flight has significantly affected Sunset Junior High School in a suburb of the city of Rotorua , with the total number of students reduced from to 70 in the early s. All but one of the 70 students are Maori.

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The area has a concentration of poor, low-skilled people, with struggling families, and many single mothers. Related to the social problems of the families, student educational achievement is low on the standard reading test. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the social phenomenon.

For other uses, see White flight disambiguation. Main article: Blockbusting.

Main article: Urban decay. Main article: Desegregation busing. Auto-segregation Black flight Ethnic succession theory Gentrification Multiculturalism Planned shrinkage Political demography Residential segregation Urban decay White genocide conspiracy theory Xenophobia. The Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE publications. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law.

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The Times. The atlas of changing South Africa 2nd ed.

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The uncertain promise of Southern Africa. Indiana Univ. Transatlantic history 1st ed. The Economist.


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September 25, Princeton University Press. The Troubled Crusade: American Education, — New York City: Basic books. Quarterly Journal of Economics. Block by block: neighborhoods and public policy on Chicago's West Side. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, Princeton, N. Archived from the original on June 10, Retrieved February 5, Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Reprinted, in part for the value of the statistical methods, in Gibbs, Jack P.

Makes Whites a Minority in 3 More Areas". Washington Post. Urban Geography. Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved April 12, Archived from the original PDF on April 14, Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community, and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups. Geografiska Annaler. Series-B, Human Geography. December 1, Journal of Planning Education and Research. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Encyclopedia of Chicago History. New York: Knopf. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

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